Tag Archives: aeschylus

30 Days: Day 14

Xerxes, Emperor of the Persians

This is the last character in The Persians!  This design, well, I don’t hate it, I don’t love it.  I’ll probably redo it somewhat, like the Ghost, not like the complete overhaul I need to do of Atossa.


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30 Days: Day 13

Well, a couple days ago I was in the worst mood, and very down on the whole 30 Days thing; it seemed like I was getting nothing out of it except embarassing myself on the Internet with a bunch of bad pictures.  But then I went fabric shopping, and started reading William Gibson‘s latest novel, and the two things combined to pour some enthusiasm back into me.  Five minutes in any fabric shop (even Joann’s, where natural fibers are apparently forbidden) gives me five thousand ideas of things to make.

Gibson’s always had a very interesting eye for clothes, but in his latest, non-science-fiction books, he’s really been focussing on them more, which I’m loving.  When I’m reading him I find myself lurking on superfuture‘s message boards, contemplating the mysterious differences in how details work in mens and womenswear, wishing I had a lot of money to spend and mysterious underground semi-black-market boutiques to spend it in.  I think my own detail-eye is more a womenswear eye, but that makes it all the more fascinating to hear how these dudes’ minds work.  I remember when I first stumbled on superfuture (I think I was looking for the address of Nowhere, before my first trip to Tokyo) and discovered the world of denim nerds and their selvedge jeans.  Fascinating.  And all this kind of thing, which is not quite fashion, but certainly not dressmaking either, helps to open my mind a little, I think, and get out of the ruts of thinking which I am very prone to.  (It also makes me miss Japan very much!)

What I worked on this weekend is not finished, and I’m not ready to talk about yet.  So here’s Monday’s creative work, another costume design for Persians.  This one, I like.  I’ll never quite get reconciled to the fact that (for me at least) design tends to come all at once, a complete piece, and out of nowhere, or else never really comes at all.  If I struggle along at it, garbage like that Atossa design comes out.  But with this one it all came, the colors and the shapes and everything, and all I really had to do consciously was fill in the little details.

The messenger, bearing very very bad news, in The Persians by Aeschylus.

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30 Days: Days 4, 5, 6

Sketches for Atossa in The Persians

It’s been a frustrating couple of days in terms of 30-days-of-creativity.  I know the point of things like this and Nanowrimo is to turn off the doubting voices in your head and just make art.  The reason, the thinking goes, that we rarely get art done (and especially, finish it, which is always the hardest thing) is that we are always running things through the quality-filter in our heads and finding them wanting.  So write a novel in 30 days, because of course the novel will be bad, but it will be finished, and you can go back and fix the bad parts, or at least learn from them, rather than stalling on it forever.

I pretty much agree with this; but it doesn’t mean that I’m not bummed that what I’ve been working on for the past couple days has been so bad.  (It wouldn’t be such a big deal if I wasn’t throwing it all up on the Internet for everyone to see!)  A lot of the time was spent on research and sketches, which was interesting if a little difficult.  There doesn’t seem to be much out there about the dress of the Ancient Persians, and particularly, almost nothing at all about women’s clothing.  This makes designing the costume for Atossa, the Queen Mother, very difficult, particularly as I would like to avoid any too-egregious Orientalisms.  The Persians is possibly the original Orientalist text, but that doesn’t mean I want to use Europeans’ imagined Sexy Harem Girl stereotypes in her costume.  I’d much rather have a basis in fact to work from and go from there.

Anyway, here are a few more of the doodles/sketches, as well as the preliminary Ghost design (which I’m not satisfied with, and will change, possibly using the idea in the little sketch following) and Queen design (which is wretched and will probably be scrapped entirely.)

Sketches of Persian decorative patterns etc.

Preliminary Design for the Ghost of Darius in The Persians

Doodle of possible revision to Ghost costume

Heinous design for Atossa in The Persians

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30 Days: Days 2 & 3

Yesterday, I decided on Aeschylus’s Persians to design some fantasy costumes for this month.  It’s probably the oldest extant play in the world, and somewhat different from the usual conception of how a plot should unfold, but still to my mind quite fascinating.  It’s the only extant Greek tragedy which is based on contemporary, rather than mythological, events.  Aeschylus himself actually took part in the central event, the defeat of the Persians at Salamis, which makes it even more surprising that Xerxes and the Persians, the ultimate enemy for the classical Greeks, are treated as three-dimensional characters and not propagandistic caricatures.  (There is a school of thought that claims that, in fact, they are caricatures, and the whole play is a jingoistic taunt; I think of this as being rather akin to the interpretation of Jesus’s “turn the other cheek” as some kind of overly-clever martial-arts advice: turn the other cheek, and use the enemy’s strength against him!)  Although it’s not much like the kind of structure we would expect from a play today, I like the pacing out of the scenes: the old men of the chorus setting the scene of a city empty of its young men, the queen and the chorus anxious for news, the devastating report of the messenger, the invocation of the ghost and his firey denunciation, and finally the entrance of the crushed Xerxes and final lamentation.

Anyway, since this is just for fun and not for a real production, I decided I wanted to give the costumes a sort of art-deco style.  I love early deco stuff, when it was more ornate; the Ballets Russes and Cubism, two of my favorite things, were big influences on the deco style, so it’s natural that I’d like it, I think.  I begin with the Chorus of Old Men of Susa.  By the end of the month I will have the whole cast designed (it’s only 4 characters other than the Chorus.)

The Chorus of Old Men of Susa

Today, I took a bike ride down the Connecticut river a ways, and brought my watercolors with me.  I stopped and ate my lunch in a pretty little cemetery, which was very old, first created in the 1660s.  I picked one grave and sketched it…not sure how successful it is, but it was fun.  It wasn’t until I was almost finished that I realized the guy had died on Christmas.

The Grave of Gideon Brainerd

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Influences: Antonin Artaud & Aeschylus

It’s fun to make every kind of costume, and it’s fun to work in every kind of theater; but at times like these, when feeling fearful and impotent, that I really long for the kind of theater that I truly prefer, which is not perhaps much fun (although backstage is always fun, no matter how gloomy the show) but which is mysterious, terrifying, spiritual, physically moving, a full-sensory gestalt; non-illusionistic, non-naturalistic, non-psychological, non-textual.  Somewhere I once read a playwright who said there are really only three things a character can do in a play, enter, speak, and exit; that conception is the exact opposite of the theater I mean.

No one has ever spoken about this difference better than Antonin Artaud, whose Metaphysics and the Mise en Scène struck me like my own thoughts transcribed.  Both his prescriptions and his reasons for them are my own.  He abominated the idea that the text is the play, that the real artist of the stage is the playwright, that a reading is equivalent to a staging in any way.  “A theater which subordinates the mise-en-scène and production, i.e., anything in itself that is specifically theatrical,to the text, is a theater of idiots, madmen,” he writes.  In this way he is quite opposed to most theorists and critics of Europe from Aristotle until at least his own time.  Furthermore he was even opposed to the idea that character is an important part of theater, much less its most important element: “I am well aware that the language of gestures and postures, dance and music, is less capable of analyzing a character, revealing a man’s thoughts, or elucidating states of consciousness clearly and precisely than is verbal language, but who ever said the theater was created to analyze a character, to resolve the conflicts of love and duty, to wrestle with all the problems of a topical and psychological nature that monopolize our contemporary stage?”  Which, as far as I can tell, puts him definitely outside the mainstream of any kind of Western criticism ever, including today.

What did he think theater was for, then?  He wanted it to be a kind of exorcism, an ecstatic rite, or as he famously put it, to be like a plague.  “The theater like the plague is a crisis which is resolved by death or cure.  And the plague is a superior disease because it is a total crisis after which nothing remains except death or an extreme purification. . . the action of the theater, like that of plague, is beneficial, for, impelling men to see themselves as they are, it causes the mask to fall, reveals the lie, the slackness, baseness, and hypocrisy of the world; it shakes off the asphixiating inertia of matter which invades even the clearest testimony of the senses; and in revealing to collectivities of men their dark power, their hidden force, it invites them to take, in the face of destiny, a superior and heroic attitude they would never have assumed without it.”

Now this is obviously not the only possible or even desirable goal for the theater.  But it is one which I dream of at night when I’m up doodling costumes and scenes, imagining the possibilities of the stage.  Particularly in times of crisis and despair, like now, with my friends in jeopardy so far away.  In general I’m attracted to stylized, splendid, and uncanny kinds of theater (and dance, and even movies) and especially like forms which are only incompletely struck off from the religious and ritualistic, like Noh or Balinese wayang kulit.  Or the tragedies of Aeschylus.

It’s strange, in some ways, to put Aeschylus together with Artaud, when text is all we have of the former.  But I think any reader of Aeschylus will soon see that his was a sensory art, not an intellectual one.  Donald Clive Stuart says, “Aristotle believed that every tragedy must have six parts and that these parts determined its quality.  Arranged in order of relative importance they were plot, character, thought, diction, song, and spectacle.  However correct this order may be for tragedy of Aristotle’s time, it must be exactly reversed to apply to early Aeschylean drama.  Aeschylus was least concerned with plot and character.”  His reputation for extravagant spectacle has lead to some wild speculations (some have supposed that more than 150 people crowded the orchaestra in The Suppliants) and a thorough dismissal of Aeschylus as a dramatist.  His defenders usually retort that his “spectacular” nature has been exaggerated–in other words, he is too a playwright for whom words, plot and character, take precedence.  (Oliver Taplin’s The Stagecraft of Aeschylus takes this tack, and is subtitled “The Dramatic Use of Entrances and Exits in Greek Tragedy”–as if calculated to make me groan.)  His command of the stage in all its aspects has almost never, in my reading (and I of course am not a scholar, so what do I know), been appreciated.

But it’s there.  Even at this remove of almost 2500 years, even in translations of copies of copies of a text which was never more than the libretto of a multimedia extravaganza, the power of Aeschylus pulls itself out through the page and into the viscera.  Only the very grandest epic poets can match the scale of his vision, which is the main function of the words–to expand the drama from the people onstage to envelope the entire universe, which, far from being static background, pulses and moves and changes as the tragedy plays out.  From Sophocles onward Western drama has tended to focus on individuals, who, in order to bring them into relief, must necessarily be separated from the background of the world; but in Aeschylus humans are a part of the world, from the chorus who are often identical with the “set”, to characters like Orestes who seem to be only the focus point of immense forces working–“I am a charioteer–the reins are flying, look, the mares plunge off the track,” he cries, as he kills his own mother.

He used every theatrical trick in the book, some of which he doubless invented.  Characters enter on chariots, ghosts appear, contrasts of color and costume are exploited, the chorus dances composedly or whirls wildly around the orchaestra.  The wonderful story goes that at the original production of Eumenides the first appearance of the Furies–carefully prepared for by the old priestess, brought to her knees in terror, and whipped into a frenzy by the ghost of the formidable Clytaemnestra–was so horrifying that men wept and women miscarried.  In Agamemnon he uses the famous “Aeschylean silence”, a consummate theatrical effect, where Cassandra remains resolutely silent to all entreaties until suddenly, without warning, bursting into wild shrieking–“a scream that turns the house of Atreus into an echoing torture chamber,” say Robert Fagles and W.B. Stanford.  For all his epic scale, he could focus down beautifully, as he does when Atossa, in The Persians, pours out libations one by one on the grave of her husband: “Milk, white, sweet to the taste, from an unblemished cow; honey, sucked by flower-working bees; lustral water from a virgin spring; and from an ancient vine in the field, this unmixed draft of radiant wine.”

For awe and terror, the purifying fire that Artaud was after, I know of no better scene in all of theater than the great, central chant at the grave of Agamemnon in Libation Bearers — the midpoint of the Oresteia as a whole.  From a plot and character point of view, it’s almost nothing–Orestes and Electra, egged on by Pylades and the chorus of slave women, appeal at the grave of their father for his blessing of their revenge, and psyche themselves up for the coming action.  It could be a line or two, or even cut altogether; but Aeschylus makes it an enormous, complex polyphony of grief and rage that builds, and builds, and just keeps building.  Artaud writes that “it is not a matter of suppressing speech in the theater but of changing its role . . . to make use of it in a concrete and spatial sense, combining it with everything in the theater that is spatial and significant in the concrete domain; to manipulate it like a concrete object,  one which overturns and disturbs things.”  That’s what this incredible chant does, it combines with the (of course unfortunately lost) music and choreography, the space and light of the theater, to overwhelm the spectator completely.

The interesting thing about Aeschylus is that he is far more uplifting to me than the more humanistic, character-driven Sophocles, much less the famously cynical Euripides.  In Sophocles, despite the high school English teacher’s focus on tragic flaws and hubris, essentially innocent people suffer and die horribly at the hands of a competely impersonal Fate (as Sophocles himself seems to argue in Oedipus at Colonus).  But in Aeschylus humans, part of the continuum of nature, and not the weakest part, can affect the world in profound and positive ways: in the Oresteia the horrifying history of the House of Atreus precipitates a rebalancing of the universe in a more just, merciful, and democratic direction.  Right now, with the destructive power of both nature and human beings on display in Japan, that’s the kind of theater I want to see and make.  I want theater which can, in Artaud’s words, “restore to all of us the natural and magic equivalent of the dogmas in which we no longer believe.”


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